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Soil and Soul Note/Biblio Extensions

 

Endnote and Bibliographic Extensions to Soil and Soul

 

My publisher had to ask me to cut down on the length of endnotes and bibliography in Soil and Soul to economise on production costs and make the book more approachable to the general reader. I've therefore created this webpage to accommodate what was taken out. Please note that, as  it is published on my personal website, Aurum Press cannot be held responsible for its content. That responsibility is mine alone, and I am happy to be informed of any errors of fact that need correction. 

 

If you have not read the book, please do not judge it by these notes. Remember that they comprise material too specialised or academic for inclusion in the book. Consider it only as supplementary background information, and remember too that the style of writing is as for notes rather than polished main text.

 

The endnotes that follow are listed according to the chapter and note to which they refer, for example, the first one below, numbered 2.3, pertains to chapter 2, endnote 3. Some of these notes will need to be read in the context of the original passage in the book and perhaps of its curtailed printed endnote fully to make sense. 

 

 

Endnote Extensions

 

(Click here to go directly down to the Extended Bibliography)

 

 

2.3 On Mainzer's Transcription of Murdo's Tunes: Miss Morag MacLeod of Edinburgh University’s School of Scottish Studies considers that Mainzer actually misaligned the music to the words by failing to distinguish grace notes from main notes (pers. com. 1999).

 

 

2.16 On Arnold, England and Celtic Peoples: Matthew Arnold, the influential head of Rugby school, goes a step further and a step too far. He condemns his own culture - “the prosaic, practical Saxon, and the approaching extinction of an enthusiasm which he derides as factitious” (in other words, what Arnold sees as an English propensity to do down enthusiasm). He therefore adulates “the lively Celtic nature … a spiritual power.” But remarkably, he simultaneously argues for the destruction of the Welsh language saying, “Traders and tourists do excellent service by pushing the English wedge further and further into the heart of the principality; Minisers of Education, by hammering it harder and harder into the elementary schools” (Arnold 1910, 18-23). 

 

 

2.22 On Condren's Sources for Bhrighde: Mary Condren tells me that the best source on the Celtic saints is O’Hanlan’s Lives of the Saints. This has about 120 pages on Bhrighde, the footnotes, she says, being best since O’Hanlan used them to hide away the less respectable stories.

 

 

2.23 On Archbishop Copas, Sorcery and PNG: In my PNG experience I have seen some situations where the work of churches seemed to be a very wonderful thing, and others where the profound spirituality of traditional wisdom seemed to have more going for it. I was very fortunate to work from 1977 as a school deputy-head for, and have as a close friend and mentor, Archbishop Virgil Patrick Copas of the Roman Catholic Church in Kerema, Gulf Province. His work was dedicated to the poor and the marginalised, especially young men in trouble with the law, and he believed that the best of both traditional and Christian beliefs could find an underlying synthesis.

 

 

4.19 On the Women of Clan Grant: W. Grant Stewart dedicates his work to the Honourable Lady Anne Margaret Grant of Grant, with whom, “there is still a magic chain of connection existing betwixt the Chief of Grant and his Clan” (p. iv). Grant is a family surname on my father’s side, and Grant women of Stewart’s era seem to have been a veritable nexus of Highland mysticism.

 

 

4.24 On Kipling's View of King James and the Loss of England's Faeries:  Kipling 1993, 10-14. Puck remarks that he is the last fairy in England. He says: “The People of the Hills have all left … flitted to other places because they couldn’t get on with the English for one reason or another.” By contrast, note the same volume’s faerie wildness of the Pict Song. Interestingly in the light of our forthcoming discussion about early modernity, Kipling diagnoses the loss of England’s fairies to political change. He quotes a roundelay (from "Farewell, Rewards and Fairies" by Richard Corbet (1582-1635)):

 

“Of theirs which yet remain,

Were footed in Queen Mary’s days

On many a grassy plain.

But since of late Elizabeth,

And later James came in,

Are never seen on any heath

As when the time hath been.”

 

4.30 On Celtic Spirituality and the Fransciscan Hebridean Connection: Duns Scotus, whose teachings had even more influence on the Franciscans than those of the magisterial St. Thomas Aquinas, was a Scot born in 1270. Another Celtic connection was when King Philip III of Spain founded the Irish Franciscan College of St Antony of Padua at Louvain in 1606 … on the insistence of Flaithrí Ó Maolchonnaire OFM - a hereditary bard of the O’Connors and MacDermots of Connacht. After the devastating defeat of the Irish by Elizabeth’s colonising English forces at the Battle of Kinsale in 1601, the Louvain became what John Lorne Campbell called, “the great centre of Gaelic learning in exile.” And from here, Campbell goes on to point out, originated the Irish Franciscans who visited the Hebrides.

 

    I am intrigued by the question of how far the nature spirituality of the southern Hebrides in particular may have pre-Christian roots, and how far it may have come from Christian exegesis and particularly Franciscan influence. I would suspect both. The influence of nature on the psyche is a quality of reality, felt all the more keenly in contexts where human life is precarious. Neither druid nor priest is essential to tell us this, though both have perhaps refined the understanding. If any reader can shed further light on the question of Franciscan influence I should be grateful to hear from them.

 

 

5.27 On Spenser's Views on Religion and Education as Imperial Policy in Ireland: Similar ideas emerged near-contemporaneously from colonial Ireland. For example, Edmund Spenser, when not writing The Faerie Queene, had a more sinister role in advising on English policy in Ireland. In his View of the State of Ireland (Spenser c. 1589, 553), he says, “… that nothing will bring them from their uncivill life sooner then learning and discipline, next after the knowledge and feare of God… And for that end every parish should be forced to keepe a pettie schoole-master, adjoining unto the parish church, to bee the more in view [and the native Irish] should be compelled to send their youth to bee disciplined, hereby they will in short space grow up to that civill conversation, that both the children will loath their former rudeness in which they were bred, and also their parents will even by the ensample of their young children perceive the foulenesse of their own behaviour, compared to theirs…” Set in this context James’ Highland policy can be seen to have accorded with a broader canon of Anglicised thought.

 

 

6.17 On Melanesian Sorcery: Being only in my early 20’s when I undertook these PNG studies, I failed at the time to consider possible connections between the role of the village sorcerer and bardic satire. However, amongst the Elema, with whom I lived, the role of sorcerer was a very dark one – it seemed to be largely about sickening and killing, though this was partly in a context of being the “village policeman.” I am given to understand that matters may differ elsewhere in Melanesia where the “sorcerer” may partake more of the character of a medicine man or woman and be concerned with healing. By the way, I am deeply grateful to my Melanesian informants for, in retrospect, giving me a deeper capacity to explore these matters. PNG taught me much about community, psychology and land that the writing of this book has caused me to reflect back on with the warmest appreciation.

 

 

9.1 On Quantifying the Highland Clearances: Figures compiled by Steve Blamires of the Highland Clearances Memorial Fund in the USA suggest that violent eviction in the period stated probably affected 300,000 to 500,000 people. I have as yet encountered no argument in airing such figures. If indirect resulting pressures to leave the land are included, the figure probably exceeds a million. (I would be grateful if any reader can shed further light on this question).

 

 

10.8 On Faerie "Glamour" as a Perceptual Question: The implications of “glamour” for the psychology of perception are profound and, as yet, largely unexplored, because most modern academic psychology suffers metaphysical myopia. Notions of glamour, hypnosis and consensual trance, however, beg fundamental questions about the nature of reality, about perceptual validity, about about worth and its cognate, worship. It requires us to ask whether seeing nature and simple things as beautiful is mere glamour, or whether the glamour is that which has caused us to miss God-created natural beauty, and to look for it in the human-made products of fashion, factories and fad. It causes us to ask, “What is the magic soap for these our manufactured times?”

 

 

13.14 On Contemporary Abuses of Tenants by Lairds: For example, a good friend of mine had her laird, a military gentleman, refuse to renew her cottage lease after her name appeared in the press in association with a demonstration against nuclear weapons. In the end he agreed to avert eviction only if the lease shifted to the name of her cohabitee and on a short-term basis, renewable on good behaviour. This arrangement, however, means she is no longer a legal tenant and so cannot claim the housing benefit to which she would otherwise be eligible as a low-income old-age-pensioner. The effect is that both she and her cohabitee feel themselves restricted in their Quaker witness of peace testimony. Another friend, who runs a small restaurant on his croft, applied in 1998 for a table license to sell wine. The police and licensing authority had no objection, but the law required the laird’s signature of approval as the “feudal superior.” He was willing to give this only on payment of £3,000 – a sum quite impossible for my friend to afford.

 

 

13.21 On the Meaning of Tara: Tara, as well as being a modern Irish name, is 1) an ancient Irish goddess,  2) the hill that was the seat of the High Kings of Ireland on which Scotland’s Stone of Destiny is said to have once sojourned, and 3) the “Green Tara” goddess who embodies compassion in Mahayana Buddhism.

 

 

13.24 On Christianity, Kenneth MacLeod and Gaelic Culture: Acts 17:16-33 – see the relevance of this to redressing the “grim [state Christian] programme for the destruction of pre-existing [Gaelic] culture” to which Professor Meek refers (Meek 1993). I am unclear whether this reconciles with some of the positions apparent in Professor Meek’s recent Celtosceptic writing (Meek 2000). These may be matters on which he has changed his position or is, quite understandably, divided within himself.

 

Incidentally, Professor Meek holds the Rev Dr Kenneth MacLeod, onetime of Eigg and Gigha, in particularly low esteem as a romanticiser (see my endnote 24:20 in the book). Meek writes of "Kennetheology" (pers. com. 2001) and tells me that he has recommended that MacLeod's famous book, The Road to the Isles, should not be reprinted. 

 

I notice that MacLeod came up in Johnston McKay's obituary for Angus MacVicar in The Herald of 3 November 2001, p. 16. McKay attributes to MacLeod the famous statement, an exemplary piece of Kennetheology: "I'm always suspicious of a man who never smokes or drinks or goes with girls - and who likes cocoa." 

 

 

14.2 On Collapsed Companies Associated with Charles Ian "Iain" Wilson of the Proposed Superquarry: Research (Companies House, pers. com.) suggests that Wilson or his wife, Maureen, have had directorships, major shareholdings or prominent interests in well over fifty companies, many of them now dissolved or bankrupt.  Without wishing to imply that Wilson or his wife were necessarily responsible for any of these collapses, they include, for example, Amalgamated Quarries (Scotland) of which Wilson was managing director, liquidated in 1985 with net debts of £2 million; Phoenix Minerals Ltd. (owners of Skye Marble, etc.) which changed its name to Kiroval Ltd. in an extraordinary directors’ meeting at Wilson’s home in 1982, and was struck off the register of companies in 1991; and Harris Minerals Ltd. which he directed, which received £125,000 in public funds from the Highlands and Islands Development Board in 1982 and 1983, and was placed into liquidation in 1994 following court action by Yeoman Plant Ltd.. Wilson’s known directorships in 1994 were Cult Hill Minerals Ltd., Grant Bros (Meat Canners) Ltd., Kentallen Aggregates Ltd., Leewood Estates Ltd. and Roneval Quarries Ltd.. The Anglicised spelling of Roineabhal here is interesting, given that Charles Ian Wilson was representing himself to the superquarry-threatened community of Durness in 2000 as “Iain” (Gaelic spelling) Wilson. Incidentally, Sir Ralph Verney whose 1976 Verney Report is cited by Wilson as recommending “the creation of superquarries” to meet demand in SE England was, from 1961-63, President of the English lairds’ trade union – the Country Landowners’ Association.

 

15.9 On the Scope of Liberation Theology - Gutierrez and beyond: Trying to fit in to the institutional structures of the Roman Catholic Church, it must be said, forces a narrow focus onto some of Gutierrez's work. As such, we sadly cannot look to him for a feminist theology. But in a wider sense of the term feminist theology, like black and interfaith theologies should, I think, be considered liberation theologies. Liberation theology is simply that which liberates into the fullness of God and, as such, it must encompass all good things. Notice, by the way, how my play with the “cringe factor” is a manifestation of “naming the Powers” that have kept many of us from understanding the relevance of theology to our lives. Indeed, far from being paragons of religion, the “cold and religious” (who have spiritually wounded so many people, cutting them off from their own sources) are its antithesis. We are invited to consider whether the Devil wears a suit and dog collar.

 

 

16.17 On Professor Meek's Celtoscepticism and the "New Age": Professor Meek, a native Gaelic speaker whose work I otherwise immensely admire says, in his attack on “Celtic Christianity,” that in his youth he had felt “something special” on Iona: “I was unable to describe it adequately, though I attempted to do so in a letter to my parents in Tiree.” However, this was not to be replicated in later years. With an air more of triumph than disappointment he concludes:  “I myself was ultimately heading away from these islands, away from the Columba of boyhood dreams, and into a world where the mind and the intellect were prepared for rational enquiry” (ibid., 248-249). 

 

    At some time I would love to have a discussion with Donald Meek about the views expressed in his book, "The Quest for Celtic Christianity." He is one of the giants of contemporary Celtic scholarship, and whilst he is the son of a Baptist minister and so, perhaps, more of a religious fundamentalist than many, and whilst he is doubtless nauseated by some of the twee pseudo-Celtic posturing to have come out of the wacky fringe of the New Age movement, I do wonder if he has not thrown out too much of the baby with the bathwater. 

 

    Incidentally, some reflection on the "New Age" is in order here because I think the term has undergone some important changes in meaning over the past three decades. Originally, in the late sixties and early seventies, "New Age" was a generic expression for the new wave of thought and experience that introduced many of us, who had been raised in barren secular or equally barren traditionally religious environments, to new insights on spirituality informed by a range of perspectives ranging from mysticism and Eastern religions to shamanism and psychedelic experience. This new wave of thought enabled many of us to see beyond the bankrupt teachings of the "cold and religious" as well as beyond the materialist secularism of our times. Many of these perspectives were associated with the hippie movement and with pop music that could trace its origins to African influence. The lyrics of popular groups like The Beatles and The Moody Blues served as an evangelical carrier for a new way, which was about being "hip" rather than "square," about making love rather than war, about questioning authority and challenging facism's authoritarian personality increasingly revealed by social psychology, and as Timothy Leary put it, about turning on (to the new "vibration"), tuning in (by developing previously underdeveloped empathy) and dropping out (from the mainstream materialistic ratrace). It is revealing that much early New Age thinking came out of California's ecstatic "Californication," and from an America increasingly disgusted by advanced capitalism and its war in Vietnam. As such, the early New Age had its roots in civil rights, back-to-the-land and anti-war protest movements. It was about carving out a countercultural alternative in a manner that was deeply spiritual, as Joni Mitchell's "Woodstock" song indicates. 

 

    However, as with every spiritual movement, the colonisers are quick to move in and distort and exploit the opportunity. Today, as of 2001, many who might, at one time, have identified as being broadly "New Age," would be wary about so doing. "New Age" has become too often a synonym for neurotic, indulgent, affluent surrogate spiritualities for the children of the rich. Some of the writings of New Age cult author, Deepak Chopra, express this very well. One of his recurrent themes is that it's OK to be both spiritual and rich. Indeed, he echoes the Weberian Protestant ethic by suggesting that being spiritual will actually make you materially rich. And he says very little indeed about genuine solidarity with the poor, the marginalised and the oppressed. Monica Sjoo, who would herself be considered "New Age" by many of her critics, has recently been writing about this in terms of "New Age patriarchy." 

 

    Indeed, in much contemporary New Age thought a neo-caste system is apparent, in that it is held that the rich are rich and the poor are poor because of their own "karma." This conveniently absolves the rich with their fancy workshops and treks in the exotic "spiritual centres" of the world from having to share too much of their privilege with the poor. Equally, it deepens their own neurosis, which is to say, their own misalignment with the realities of this world. As one New Age exemplar put it in a recent lecture I attended, "Seen no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil." In other words, the idea is put about that the world is basically all OK, and that if we think it's not, then the problem rests not out there in the world, but in our perceptions. Accordingly, the half-truth that we should "fix ourselves rather than try and fix the world" is perpetrated as if it is the whole truth. Dame Julian's deep mystical truth that, "All shall be well, and all manner of things shall be well," is applied in a confusion of categories that suggests that if we see evil in this world it is only because the evil exists in our own perception. It isn't really out there, therefore we don't really need to apply ourselves to social justice. Well, in my view iIt is one thing to try and speak no evil; but it is a false spiritual path to consider that you can go through life in the "all love and light" naivety of neither seeing nor hearing it. 

 

    it is this kind of teaching, I think, that gives people like Professor Meek or Professor Donald Macleod (of the Free Church College) the absolute creeps on encountering New Age Celticity. The feel, with justification, that a tradition predicated fundamentally on community and therefore on the egalitarian imperative to share has been hijacked by people more interested in getting off on wolves, eagles and mantras than on helping the orphan, the sick and the refugee in the house next door. It would also be true to say that they feel that there is a uniqueness about Christ which must not and cannot be confused with constructs of the deity in other religions. 

 

    It will be clear that there are caricatures and misrepresentations at work here in both the New Age position and that of its critics. My own view is that the New Age movement has done a fantastic job of widening the mindsets of many of us, and that this has enabled some of us to return to our own traditions and start reforming them inspired by and grateful for insights from a wider world. We can now, in the metaphor of one Sufi teacher, see other systems of spiritual thought as being like a necklace of different coloured beads, with the string of God running through them all. Supporters of traditional religion do not like this sort of metaphor. They call it "syncretism" because, they say, it overlooks difference and tries to make everything the same. I think the dichotomy between difference and sameness here is a false dichotomy. I think it is still possible to see the distinctions between different religions, and yet see a common underlying spiritual principle running through them all. You can have both the distinctive beads and the necklace. As the evolution of life itself shows, God knows how to work with diversity in unity. This is ecology, and what we are looking at here is the ecology of religions.

 

    Relative to the dark age world of the mid-twentieth century, it is a fact that many of us are now living in a spiritual New Age with, in the positive syncretistic sense of the word, a New Age perspective. Nonetheless, Professor Meek might be reassured to know that I increasingly I find myself using the designation "New Age" in a negative sense, as being about an indulgent but not an engaged spirituality. As I see it, if our spirituality is not relevant to either the poor or the broken in nature, then it is not true spirituality. At the same time, there is maybe a touch of intolerance in this perspective, because many of the world's affluent people who today tend to define what constitutes "New Age" are actually deeply damaged in themselves , so maybe, in fact, they need to focus a lot on themselves. Accordingly, I see the jury as still being out on whether or not "New Age" today is, in balance, a positive or a negative designation ... and of course, everything that one can say about the New Age, and especially about the smug and even conceited tendency to cherish the inner life but ignore the outer, can equally be said about the traditional mainstream churches in the West. Accordingly, the issues discussed here in relation to the New Age are really issues which pertain to all organised religious activity, and it is because the New Age has become commercialised that these questions have developed such a poignancy.

 

Scotland, of course, hosts the spiritual Mecca of New Age thinking at the Findhorn Community, near Inverness. I have friends living there and from time to time am invited to speak at their events. One thing that strikes me is how difficult it is to fit to the stereotypes. The wacky stuff is all there, but so is some really switched on leading edge thinking - including very practical approaches such as their ecological architecture and waste treatment facilities. The rich go there, but many also struggle to attend, and the workshop fees, while high, are not sufficient to ward off the organisation's large bank overdraft. My personal view is that Findhorn has things both to teach and to learn within Scotland. At one level, it is a community that has parachuted in from all over the world, and in the past has brought with it too much of the Anglo-American colonial arrogance. Ithas not been good at listening to what Scotland might say to it  - particularly about the relation of social justice to spirituality - and few Scots are involved with its activities (though some of those who are, such as Alan Watson, are very central). On the other hand, we Scots have too often had our ears blocked to hearing the gifts that outsiders bring, and our eyes have too often been closed to what are often the returning children of our own diaspora. The Findhorn Foundation sits uncomfortably in Scotland. It is a discomfort from which we all might do well to reduce, and learn from.

 

 

19.31 On the Body of Christ: Christianity often talks about the “Body of Christ,” but forgets that in John’s gospel concepts of space, of geography, are incorporated into this very body. It is, therefore, He, not Jacob’s well, which is the source of life-giving water (4:7-15); He, not the Pool of Bethesda, that offers healing (5:2-9). That does not mean that “Christ” replaces nature. Rather, through him the whole of the Creation is rendered holy because of the synonymy of life and incarnation. The prologue to John’s gospel supports this view in claiming that no thing was made without God, and that God’s life “was the true light which enlightens every person coming into the world” (1:9). Paul in Colossians 1:15-18 says, of Christ: “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; for in him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers – all things have been created through him and for him. He himself is before all things, and in him all things hold together. He is the head of the body, the church” (my emphasis). Parallel takes on the fundamental unity of deep reality in other faiths might include the all-pervasive presence of the “Buddha nature,” the Islamic notion that all Muslims form one body, the totality of the Tao, and Hinduism’s Bhagavad Gita or the “Net of Indra” by which all things are interconnected.

 

 

22.11 On The Matrix as an Expression of Christian Motifs in Popular Culture: A more recent example of religious archetype being played out in popular culture is the cult movie, The Matrix, released at Easter 1999. There you have a John the Baptist (Moebus) waiting on the coming of a redeeming Jesus (Neo - suggestive of the new way) whose alternative to the consensual trance world of the Matrix is even called Zion, the Biblical city of God, and whose spaceship is called Nebuchadnezzar - the ancient Babylonian king whose Biblical function (as Jeremiah saw it) was to punish the Israelites for their idolatrous disbelief. Neo gets betrayed by a Judas (Cypher, who just wants to buy his way back into the Matrix’s comfortably complacent suit-and-tie business-as-usual life of delusion). Neo dies, but is promptly resurrected by the kiss of a Mary figure called Trinity - she being the hero who, like the women who were the first to see the resurrected Christ, had all along kept the faith and believed in him. The movie concludes with the resurrected Neo’s rather ambiguous transcendence of violence, stopping bullets in the air as he breaks the Matrix’s grip on reality. However, as with much of the Bible itself, one is left unsatisfactorily unsure whether this particular latter-day prophet really saw through the Matrix’s ultimate constellating power, which is to say, Walter Wink’s “myth of redemptive violence.” Most of the movie merely fights violence with violence and glories in its special effects. As such, it says more about conventional politically­ colonised religion than it does about spirituality. Spirituality is the choice to fight tough violence with tough love — love that will confront terror with firm, courageous and compassionate conviction. Love whose sword is integrity, whose cutting edge is truth’s freedom from delusion. Unfortunately for the makers of  cult movies and their virtual realities, this means choosing nonviolence as the only way left. “Get yourselves a new heart and a new spirit!” said God through Ezekiel. “I have no pleasure in the death of anyone... Turn, then, and live.”

 

 

23.17 On the Alleged Abuse of Poetry in the Superquarry Inquiry: During the inquiry Ian Stephen gave evidence that some of his poetry had been misused (and done so without permission) by Redland’s independent professional consultant on landscape value, Mrs Hankinson of Glen Kemp Hankinson, “who had been paid to justify an opinion rather than to arrive at one” in making out that islanders would not be put out by experiencing major change to their environment. Ian quoted Under Roinebhal to the inquiry and emphasised that “the conclusion was intended to be ironic by understatement.” Ian testified that he had also established that Iain Crichton Smith too “objected to Mrs Hankinson quoting from his work” in this context (Pain 1999, Vol 2 - 23:108-112). This vignette offers fascinating insight into an attempt by arguably anti-poetic forces to hijack poetry for their own ends.

 

 

23.32 On the Pincer Action Between Anti-Quarry and Anti-Motorway Protesting: One factor behind this was road protesting, knocking the political wind out of motorway building. The protests stopped few roads directly, but they probably contributed to massive budget cutbacks with a knock-on effect on aggregate demand. Some of us involved in road protests during the early 1990’s saw it as a pincer campaign, whereby, on the one hand, we were trying to stop the opening of new sites for quarrying primary material, such as Lingerabay, and on the other, we were advocating policies like material recycling and improved public transport, so that demand was taken away. I think it is vital that activists always try to locate local actions in a wider framework like this, otherwise they fall vulnerable to being accused, perhaps unfairly, of non-in-my-back-yard (NIMBY) syndromes. Of course, if we all looked after our own back yards the world would be a better place!

 

 

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Extended Bibliography

 

(Most of the books included in the print version of the bibliography to Soil and Soul are texts that were directly cited. Accordingly, those that are listed below were not necessarily of lesser importance in the influence they had in shaping the thought that went into the book.)

 

Athanasius (1953). On the Incarnation, Mowbray, UK.

 

Basso, Keith H. (1984). “Stalking with Stories”: Names, Places and Moral Narratives among the Western Apache, in Bruner (ed) 1984, 19-57.

 

Bates, Brian (1996). The Wisdom of the Wyrd, Rider, London.

 

Boland, Eavan (1989). A Kind of Scar: The Woman Poet in a National Tradition, Attic Press.

 

Brown, J. A. C. (1963). Techniques of Persuasion: from Propaganda to Brainwashing, Penguin, London.

 

Brown, N. O. (1966). Love's Body, University of California Press, Berkeley.

 

Bruner, E. (ed.) (1984). Text, Play and Story, American Ethnological Society, Washington DC.

 

Callander, Robin (1998). How Scotland is Owned, Canongate, Edinburgh.

 

Churchill, Ward (1994). Indians Are Us? Culture and Genocide in Native North America, Common Courage Press, Maine.

 

Cowan, Tom (1993). Fire in the Head: Shamanism and the Celtic Spirit, HarperSanFrancisco, Ca..

 

Cramb, Auslan (1996). Who Owns Scotland Now? The Use and Abuse of Private Land, Mainstream, Edinburgh.

 

Curle, Adam (1990). Tools for Transformation, Hawthorne, England.

 

Daly, Mary E. (1973). Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women’s Liberation, Beacon Press, Boston.

 

Daly, Mary E. (1979). Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, Women’s Press, London.

 

Dunbar, J. T. (1977). Highland Costume, Mercat Press, Edinburgh.

 

Durkacz, Victor E. (1983). The Decline of the Celtic Languages: A Study of Linguistic and Cultural Conflict in Scotland, Wales and Ireland from the Reformation to the Twentieth Century, John Donald, Edinburgh.

 

Edwards, D. L. (1989). Tradition and Truth: in dialogue with Geoffrey Lampe, Dennis Nineham, John Robinson, Maurice Wiles, John Bowden, John Hick, Don Cupitt, Hodder & Stoughton, London.

 

Eliot, T. S. (1959). Four Quartets, Faber & Faber, London.

 

Ellis, Peter Berresford (1992). Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Constable, London.

 

Esquivel, Julia (1990). Conquered and Violated Women, in Boff & Elizondo (eds.), 68-77.

 

Ewen, Stuart (1977). Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of Consumer Culture,  McGraw-Hill, New York.

 

Fromm, Erich (2001 (1942)). The Fear of Freedom, Routledge, London.

 

Girardet, Herbert (1992). Cities: New directions for sustainable urban living, Gaia Books, London.

 

Goldsmith, F. B. & Warren, A. (eds.) (1993). Conservation in Progress, John Wiley, London.

 

Gore, Al (1992). Earth in the Balance, Earthscan, London.

 

Grant, I. F. (1961). Highland Folk Ways, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

 

Gravitz, M.A. & Gerton, M. I. (1984). Hypnosis in the Historical Development of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, in Webster & Smith (eds.), 1984, 7-17.

 

Hall, J. A. (1985). Power and Liberties, Blackwell, Oxford.

 

Harrison, Beverley Wildung (1990). The Power of Anger in the Work of Love: Christian Ethics for Women and Other Strangers, in Loades (ed.) 1990, 194-213.

 

Hawken, Paul (1993). The Ecology of Commerce: How Business can Save the Planet, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, USA.

 

Heaney, Seamus (1980). The God in the Tree: Early Irish Nature Poetry, Preoccupations, Faber and Faber, London, 181-189.

 

Hick, John (1983). The Second Christianity, SCM, London.

 

Hillman, James & Ventura, Michael (1992). We’ve had a hundred years of psychotherapy and the world’s getting worse, HarperSanFrancisco, USA.

 

Hulbert, Alastair & McIntosh, Alastair (1992). The GulfWatch Papers, Edinburgh Review, 87, 15-71 (on www.AlastairMcIntosh.com).

 

Hulbert, Alastair (1993). Quo Vadis, Europa?, Cultures and Development: Quid Pro Quo, 13/14, Brussels.

 

Hutton, Ronald (1994). The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year 1400-1700, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Illich, Ivan (1976). Celebration of Awareness: a Call for Institutional Revolution, Pelican, Harmondsworth.

 

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